Pictorial supplement to The Fifth Kingdom - Chapter 11b

Fungal Ecology -  part 2  

A comparison of fungi in streams and ponds (24 pictures)

[my grateful thanks to Prof. Felix Baerlocher and Dr. John Michaelides,
whose Ph.D. thesis work made this section of the chapter possible]

Amphibious fungi in Streams 

11-42 bubble spores.jpg (4792 bytes) Amphibious fungi in streams - tetraradiate conidia in stream water trapped by a tiny air-bubble.  This why foam is a good source of spores.
11-43 Tetrachaetum spores.jpg (5200 bytes) Amphibious fungi in streams - tetraradiate conidia of Lemonniera from stream water.
11-44 Tetracladium spore.jpg (2784 bytes) Amphibious fungi in streams - a tetraradiate conidium of Tetracladium from stream water
11-45 Lemonniera spore.jpg (3728 bytes) Amphibious fungi in streams - a tetraradiate conidium of Lemonniera from stream water
11-48 Clavariopsis spore.jpg (3679 bytes) Amphibious fungi in streams - a tetraradiate conidium of Clavariopsis (SEM).   Arrows indicate percurrent extensions of conidiogenous cell.
11-46 3pointlanding.jpg (4077 bytes) Amphibious fungi in streams - a tetraradiate conidium making a 3-point landing on a dead leaf.
11-47 Lemonniera sporulating.jpg (5051 bytes) Amphibious fungi in streams - conidiophores and conidia of Lemonniera arising from a dead leaf
11-49 Gammarus.gif (9274 bytes) Amphibious fungi in streams - Gammarus, eater of leaves and fungi
11-50 feeding expt1.jpg (2901 bytes) Amphibious fungi in streams - feeding experiment showing Gammarus (dark dots) choosing fungal cultures (grey lines) over dead leaf material (dark circles)
11-51 feeding expt2.gif (7189 bytes) Amphibious fungi in streams - feeding experiment showing how inoculation with specific fungi can reverse usual preference for leaf species.
                                  Aero-aquatic fungi in ponds
11-52 Pond1.jpg (9888 bytes) Aero-aquatic fungi in ponds - the pond in Autumn
11-53 Pond2.jpg (7671 bytes) Aero-aquatic fungi in ponds - floating leaves which have just fallen into the pond.
11-54 Pond3.jpg (7200 bytes) Aero-aquatic fungi in ponds - the pond in winter
11-55 Pond4.jpg (9518 bytes) Aero-aquatic fungi in ponds - the pond in spring
11-56 Helicoon1.jpg (5117 bytes) Aero-aquatic fungi in ponds - conidiophores emerging from the water in summer, and developing into....
11-57 Helicoon2.jpg (6300 bytes) ....coiled, hollow conidia of Helicoon
11-58 Helicoon3.jpg (8708 bytes) Aero-aquatic fungi in ponds - conidia of Helicoon arising from an inoculated leaf.
11-59 Helicoon4.jpg (5216 bytes) Aero-aquatic fungi in ponds - hollow, air-trapping conidia of Helicoon ellipticum (two containing bubbles).
11-60 Beverwykella1.jpg (6567 bytes) Aero-aquatic fungi in ponds - development stages of the hollow, floating propagules of Beverwykella
11-61 Beverwykella2.jpg (5880 bytes) Aero-aquatic fungi in ponds - propagules of Beverwykella arising from an inoculated leaf
11-62 Spirosphaera.jpg (4200 bytes) Aero-aquatic fungi in ponds - complex conidium of Spirosphaera, another genus with propagules that trap air.
11-63 frogspawn.jpg (7800 bytes) Aero-aquatic fungi in ponds - tree-frog-spawn in the pond.
11-64 leafskeleton.jpg (5557 bytes) Aero-aquatic fungi in ponds - skeletonized leaf from the pond - leaf and fungi have been eaten by snails and tree-frog tadpoles.
11-65 treefrog.jpg (5237 bytes) Aero-aquatic fungi in ponds - tree frog - the top of the food pyramid in the pond
   Go to Chapter 11c
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Mycologue Publications 2001