fungi mushrooms mycology the fifth kingdom

Pictorial supplement to The Fifth Kingdom - Chapter 14

Fungi as agents of Biological Control

(23 pictures)

(1) Control of animal pests by entomogenous fungi

14-1 spruce budworm1.jpg (4040 bytes)
Biocontrol - a healthy spruce budworm larva which, when inoculated with Metarhizium anisopliae (Hyphomycetes)...

14-2 spruce budworm2.jpg (2937 bytes)
...dies and becomes covered with conidiophores of the fungus.

14-3 Metarhizium.jpg (5449 bytes)
Biocontrol - a weevil killed by Metarhizium (Hyphomycetes)

14-4 Hirsutella.jpg (5055 bytes)
Biocontrol - Hirsutella lecaniicola (Hyphomycetes) killing scale insects and producing synnematal conidiomata on them.

14-5 mycar1.jpg (5760 bytes)
Biocontrol - "Mycar" myco-acaricide label. This is a commercially available preparation of Hirsutella thompsonii (Hyphomycetes).

14-6 vertalec.jpg (5559 bytes)
Biocontrol - label for commercial preparation of Verticillium lecanii (Hyphomycetes), a mycoinsecticide.

14-7 Akanthomyces.jpg (8122 bytes)
Biocontrol - Akanthomyces aranearum (Hyphomycetes) producing synnematal conidiomata from its victim, a spider.

14-8 Cordyceps.jpg (6634 bytes)
Biocontrol - Cordyceps sinclairii (Ascomycetes) fruiting on insect host.

14-9 Entomophthora.jpg (4812 bytes)
Biocontrol - Entomophthora muscae (Zygomycetes) emerging from a fly it has killed.

14-10 Phoma.jpg (102804 bytes)
Biocontrol - Phomopsis oblonga inoculation (right) reduces normal breeding (left) of the bark beetle which carries Dutch elm disease.

(2) Control of weeds by pathogenic fungi

14-11 Bio-Mal1.jpg (13426 bytes)
Biocontrol - one plant of Malva pusilla, a serious weed on the prairies in crops such as flax. 

14-12 Bio-Mal2.jpg (10688 bytes)
Biocontrol - experimental plots showing how application of spores of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp. malvae effectively kills the weed.

14-13 Bio-Mal3.gif (7308 bytes)
Biocontrol - C. gloeosporioides marketed under the name "Bio-Mal" as a biocontrol agent for Malva pusilla (round-leaved mallow).

14-14 Acacia1.jpg (7928 bytes)
Biocontrol - a dense stand of Acacia saligna, an alien plant introduced from Australia, smothering the native 'fynbos' vegetation in South Africa.

14-15 Acacia2.jpg (8427 bytes)
Biocontrol - application of a rust fungus, Uromycladium tepperianum, causes heavy gall formation and helps control the Acacia.

14-16 Hakea1.jpg (8658 bytes)
Biocontrol - Another Australian immigrant, Hakea sericea, causes similar problems in South Africa...

14-17 Hakea2.jpg (11772 bytes)
...and produces heavy crops of seeds...

14-18 Hakea3.jpg (7141 bytes)
...but in some places is naturally killed by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

14-19 Hakea4.jpg (5562 bytes)
Distribution of the Colletotrichum by helicopter...

14-20 Hakea5.jpg (10883 bytes)
...induces the disease.

(3) Fungi in biocontrol of other fungi

14-21 Tuberculina1.jpg (5707 bytes)
Biocontrol - Tuberculina (lilac colour) parasitizing the uredinial stage (orange) of a Puccinia on Rubus.

14-22 Tuberculina2.jpg (10800 bytes)
Biocontrol - a section showing a darkly stained crust of Tuberculina overgrowing  a rust pustule (larger, roundish, red-stained spores).

14-23 Gliocladium.jpg (8118 bytes)
Biocontrol - experimental control of Sclerotinia by Gliocladium virens and Coniothyrium minitum. Sclerotia of the pathogen inoculated with the biocontrol fungi fail to produce apothecial ascomata.

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